Institute of Clinical Economics e.V.

Current Projects

Pragmatic Controlled Trials

Our current discussion is examining the resilience of the hypothesis that there will be hardly any Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) in about 5 years, as these will not adequately reflect the reality of care. Instead, alternative study designs are now available, of which Pragmatic Controlled Trials are a central option. The members of the ICE are invited to participate in the discussion of this hypothesis (External Link).  

Perceived Safety

Our current discussion deals with the connection between objective risks and their subjective perception, which we call "perceived safety". Understanding the relationship between objective risk and subjectively perceived security explains the demand behaviour decisively. In an efficient health care system, it should be understood that diagnosis or therapy should only be carried out if it can reduce either risks or their consequences (i.e. illness or premature death). As a rule,"perceived safety" should not be the only thing that leads to an indication. Since professional communication is the most important modulator of this construct, the professionalization of risk understanding and risk communication in the health professions is central. The topic of "perceived safety" has a broad social significance with regard to over-, under- and wrong supply (External Link).


Professional Communication and Efficient Supply

A critical doctor should be able to answer the following questions: What do you recommend for screening, diagnosis and therapy? Why exactly these measures? How many patients have their health problems been corrected without these measures? And finally, how many patients could the health problem not be solved with the measures applied?

Relevant reliable data must be available for this purpose, which can be obtained, for example, by means of Pragmatic Control Trials.
And healthcare systems and their physicians must learn to communicate effectively. Scientific data confirm that professional communication can prolong life.

Effective and customized communication is more important than ever, especially against the background of patient empowerment, shared decision making and patient-centered care. A health care system will only become efficient if patients have the answers to these questions.

Our Teaching Project: Clinical Economics

In order to actively implement these topics, we believe that they need to be integrated much more widely in the training and further education of health professionals. That is why we have started with a form of teaching that is accessible to all.

For this purpose, the ICE created a virtual course "Clinical Economics" in cooperation with the Virtual University of Bavaria (VHB).

The full version of the course is available free of charge to all students of the Bavarian universities. Please send requests for paid access to or

  • Here you can find the courses offered by the Virtual University of Bavaria: External Link
  • and here is a demo version of the Clinical Economics course: External Link

We invite interested parties to either take an active part in the discussion of one of these topics as personal members with their own competence or to follow and support the discussion of these topics as legal members (companies).